On 24 December 2020, the negotiators from the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) reached an agreement on a new partnership. This agreement sets out the rules that apply between the EU and the UK as of 1 January 2021.
On that date, the UK has left the EU Single Market and Customs Union, as well as all EU policies and international agreements. It will put an end to the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital with the EU.
The EU and the UK will form two separate markets; two distinct regulatory and legal spaces. This will recreate barriers to trade in goods and services and to cross-border mobility and exchanges that have not existed for decades – in both directions, affecting public administrations, businesses, citizens and stakeholders on both sides. The major mobility consequences are given below.
From 1 October 2021 EU citizens need a valid passport (until the day of leaving) to enter the UK. A European ID card will no longer be sufficient.
The UK will no longer participate in the Erasmus+ mobility programme, hence study exchanges through this programme to the UK are no longer an option.
Tuition fees will go up for EU students from the academic year 2021/22 onwards, probably by 3 to 4 times when compared to pre-Brexit.
You will need a student visa for any (exchange/study) stay longer than 6 months.
For short stays (less than 6 months) you will need a standard visitor visa.
For study stays over 6 months you need a student visa (And pay attention to the costs: £348, plus there is a health surcharge of £470).
You need to have a job offer with a gross salary of at least 26.500 GBP, and the ability to speak English with fluency level B1 to enter the UK. Some exceptions are available for healthcare workers and ‘global talent’ in the art, tech or science sectors.
From 1 July 2021, there’s the option of a graduate visa for students that graduated from a British institution. It allows you to look for work for 2 years (PhD candidates have a 3-year search period).
If you were already living in the UK before 1 January 2021, you can apply for a temporary residence permit (before 31 July 2021. This can be(come) a permanent residence permit if you have been living in the UK for a minimum of 5 years.
 Please note this information does not have any legal status, it is just meant for informational purposes.